¿Cuánta energía necesitamos para alimentar la fotosíntesis en nuestras plantas?

¿Cuánta energía necesitamos para alimentar la fotosíntesis en nuestras plantas?

Muchos saben lo que involucra el proceso de fotosíntesis, el cual se compone de CO2, agua y energía proveniente del sol. Pero, has pensado cuánta es la energía necesaria para que esos fotones produzcan una cantidad óptima de masa o materia verde dentro de la fotosíntesis, específicamente en cannabis. Primero que todo, ya sabemos cómo se mide la energía utilizada en la fotosíntesis y es en umol/m²/s “micromoles por metro cuadrado por segundo”, correspondiente al PPFD o densidad de flujo de fotones fotosintéticamente activos.

energia fotosintesis

¿Qué cantidad de PPFD necesita el cannabis?

Ahora que ya sabemos la cantidad de luz que emiten nuestras lámparas, necesitamos saber qué cantidad mínima necesitan para hacer la fotosíntesis y cuál es la cantidad máxima antes de provocar una saturación lumínica (muy poco recomendable).

Si, las plantas tienen un tope de luz que pueden procesar, si sobrepasamos ese tope, la planta se saturará provocando que se estrese y merme su crecimiento o floración. Así que veamos cuales son los niveles adecuados en PPFD que necesita el Cannabis.

PPDF – umol/m²/s
Semillas germinando y plántulas 200 a 400 PPFD
Marihuana en el ciclo de crecimiento 400 a 600 PPFD
Marihuana en el ciclo de floración 600 a 1000 PPFD
 Tabla 1. Densidad de flujo fotosintéticamente activo (PPFD) adecuado para el cultivo de cannabis.

No obstante, hay que tener presente que las variedades sativas admiten un poco más. De forma que si el máximo para una variedad Índica o Híbrida en floración, es de 1000 umol/m2/s, para una genética Sativa puede ser de 1200 umol/m2/s. Superar estas mediciones no significa aumentar la producción de forma considerable, aunque si significa correr el riesgo de saturar lumínicamente a nuestras plantas. Ojo que la saturación lumínica se comporta lineal al aumento de CO2 y con ello aumentan la fotosíntesis.

Los equipos de nueva generación y dedicados a cultivo deben incorporar la especificación de eficiencia indicada como PPE y el flujo de fotones fotosintéticamente activos PPF, los cuales se miden en umol/J y umol/s respectivamente. Con esta variable y según la tabla de niveles adecuados de PPFD para cannabis, logramos saber para qué área nos puede servir con un simple cálculo matemático.

Para calcular el área adecuada que debe cubrir un equipo basta con multiplicar la eficiencia PPE en umol/J por la potencia de consumo en W y con ello obtenemos el flujo real del equipo en umol/s indicado como PPF. Como podemos ver, nos faltarían los metros cuadrados dentro de la dimensión del PPF para saber el área o densidad espacial donde trabajamos y para esto solamente necesitamos dividir el PPF por el área de interés que deseamos para obtener una densidad de flujo PPFD adecuada según Tabla 1.

En el caso de los equipos ZENCOB, SAMLED y SAMBAR, para saber el área de cobertura necesitamos saber su potencia y eficiencia. Como dijimos la eficiencia es de 2,78 y 3 umol/J . Aplicando la formula (1) obtenemos la tabla 2.

PPFD umol/m²/s ZENCOB S250 250W SAMLED B240 250W
Semillas germinando y plántulas 200 a 400 3,5 m² a 1,7 m² 3,7 m² a 1,8 m²
Marihuana en el ciclo de crecimiento 400 a 600 1,7 m² a 1,2 m² 1,8 m² a 1,3 m²
Marihuana en el ciclo de floración 600 a 1000 1,2 m² a 0,7 m² 1,3 m² a 0,8 m²
 Tabla 2. Densidad de flujo fotosintéticamente activo (PPFD) adecuado para el cultivo de cannabis.

Finalmente, como vemos en la Tabla 2, con un ZENCOB S250 logramos un PPFD de 1000 umol/m²/s en un área de 0,7 m², es decir en un área de 80x80 cm.


3 comments

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